1. Culture, Government and Civic Society by Susana Gaspar and
Joâo Amaro, Lisbon, Portugal
2. Facing the Future by
Ilídio Nunes, Lisbon, Portugal.
3. Nomadic University –
ECP Schwungseminar for European Creativity by Pierre Guillet de Monthoux,
4. New Agora – Quest for New
Ideas and New Intercultural Practices, A Proposal by the Borderland Foundation
for the European Culture Parliament, by Krzysztof Czyzewski, Sejny, Poland.
Culture, Government and Civic Society
By Susana Gaspar
and Joâo Amaro, Lisbon, Portugal.
Culture is not merely the sum of several activities but
We are all culture. When said in this way, what
is qualifiable, that which cannot be measured, becomes quantifiable. We shelter
in a definition of culture unreflected gestures which associate our everyday
freedom – perhaps emanating from something ancestral informed of by life itself
- with the more heavily pondered decisions of our behaviour as citizens both
free and conscious of the acceptance of this freedom. A statement totalitarian
and containing no true analysis of what is or not culture does not lead
us to any conclusion on what culture is. We do however arrive at a myriad of
perspectives which characterise the entire cultural debate in Europe.
Two questions, which we are the basis of this
intervention, should be asked in the exploitation of the current meaning of the
concept of diversity in Europe:
1. Are we contributing to the diversification of
cultural goods and services?
2. Is Europe deepening the knowledge of its
diversities and in effect creating conditions to enable diversity to be its
Our awareness of culture impels us to act
politically. As T.S. Eliot states that, “awareness transformed the problem of
education, both in terms of identifying culture with education
and in terms of making education the only instrument that can improve our
culture“. This note by T.S. Eliot draws our attention to the need for
education to be the driving force of cultural sensitivity. A sensitivity which
vitalises our heritage and makes it truly present in us all, to ensure it is not
an “archived vitality“. The times in which we live, particularly
favourable to the somewhat arrogant specialisation of the “great high
priests“, can result in a pernicious consequence of increasing the distance
between the subject and the object. The subject is the citizen who
accesses cultural goods and the object the cultural good itself, the fruition of
which is no longer straightforward but operated through those who control the
specificities of cultural languages – this being applicable to both art and
Education must have a sense of the everyday
citizen, proclaiming the extremely rich cultural heritage of Europe to enable
all citizens to fulfil their lives according to the choices and decisions they
make throughout their lives. Education is therefore the safety capital which can
ensure individual decisions are responsible, with obvious social and economic
benefits for states. We reject cultural state directed development and
ideological impregnation of education but we demand a supply, by states, of an
education which does justice to our valuable European heritage. This long term
and demanding effort will be the most reliable driving force of an increasingly
wider market of cultural goods and services which will result in a greater range
of choices for citizens and, in turn, will sustain a more diverse cultural
supply. Still in the area of education another profound problem is that of the
coexistence of the many languages with which we communicate. This has a direct
influence on the essential instruments governments have at their disposal to
maintain and strengthen cultural policies – the audiovisual. Our very
rich European Babel is the first difficulty which the effort to integrate
cultural industries is faced with.
Still in the area of the supply of cultural goods
and in the present circumstances we see that it is necessary to support certain
artistic activities without questioning the free competition of the internal
market. The market is insufficient when it comes to the needs of artistic
production as it does not have the necessary nor sufficient scope to cover the
diversity of events in the Union. States are therefore obliged to act both
upstream and downstream of artistic production in terms of both the promotion of
cultural industries in the respective country and in the training of audiences
to raise their awareness of a Europe rich in multiple identities.
If upstream we have already mentioned the
priority which should be given to an education which prepares for the exercise
of citizenship and the freedom of choice based on responsibility, downstream the
role of the states is decisive in maintaining European cultural diversity.
Diversity, in addition to differences between the countries which are part of
the Union, diversity is also plurality of interests, disciplines and fields of
research in the cultural domain. If on the scientific level we all agree on the
ineluctable investment of states – through different strategies in which the
articulation between scientific investigation and society is enhanced with a
view to the production of technologies – on the artistic level the equivalent
weight of the state is not consensual and is often the cause of disputes between
cultural agents. We think that this has been happening due to lack of clarity in
the political options assumed, due to the confusion which is unavoidably caused
between those who feel supported by and those who are excluded from the state
In addition to what we consider to be the
anachronism of the polemical issues of the simple conservation of the heritage
which some defended or of the blind, ungrounded support given to whoever
appeared before the government entities supporting creation, we think we can all
agree that governments have responsibilities in these areas. And if the
resources should not be merely transferred for the maintenance of the stones
which make up our built up memory, with limited budgets the ministries of
culture will have to be more careful in the support granted to artistic and
cultural production. But this alone is not enough and the cyclical controversies
will inevitably return to the cultural supplements of the press. That is why
those elected should fulfil the promises they make, as these can never be
determined by questions of taste. As supporting creation is a risk, this
risk should be taken on board with no complexes nor should state support be made
into a political weapon. As the cultural question is structural for the Union,
we believe that governments should intervene in cultural, scientific and
artistic domains, transforming them into a strategic sector as others are and
which are more visible on the inter-governmental agendas. For this it is not
enough to simply list everyone’s good intentions but to accept the risk which is
a way to invest in what is new in the field of culture. We are going to fail
many times but by accompanying Beckett we shall learn to fail better. Because
culture is the way we see and live the world.
But let’s now look at the urgent need to take the
concept of diversity further trying to understand to what extent Europe is
really in agreement with what it lays down in its policies. Faced with complex
and ever-changing processes of cultural evolution, the discussion should be
constantly reformulated in its directions and concepts of reality.
In this way, we can address the second question
raised at the onset of this text. It is common among intellectuals of various
areas to write reflexively about cities: about the cultural specificities of
each one, about the culture generated from confrontation/conviviality between
urban communities, about each urban community specifically, with their own
crossroads and references. Another common debate is that of a culture between
cities which has been the main point of reflection to find solutions of
political intervention for culture in Europe, conceived as imminent and
developed in urban or suburban environments (capitals, medium and small sized
In this assumption a very important question is
lost: if on the one hand most of the European population lives in urban areas
then there is on the other hand an immense space (increasingly more unoccupied)
which is losing its own culture, closely linked to the characteristics of the
geophysical environment and which brought original variants to urban culture in
each country through migratory flows which came to increase the population. In
Portugal and probably in many countries in Europe rural communities reacted to
the lack of conditions and to the desire to access the cultural values of the
modern world by leaving their own space for good (for cities or other countries)
or on a daily basis to go to work. In this outbound movement they associated the
possibility of conquering quality of life outside the scope of the need to
reformulate their cultural values, by running after a form of identification
with the whole world, in opposition to the feeling of reclusion and remoteness
lived in the rural space. At least culturally people wanted to leave
those spaces where they felt limited, essentially due to a poor living
conditions (sanitation, leisure areas associated with their past and customs,
accesses, employment…) and possibilities to enter into contact with the rest of
the world. In this way, rural environment is a loosely developed and paradoxical
mixture between ancestral knowledge of the elements and activities associated
with this knowledge which exist in people as a part of their bodies and gestures
and the attempt to create a new identity with what is brought from outside in
terms of customs and global formulas of life which, in the exercise of this
transposition, only contribute to worsen the poor living conditions.
Social and economic evolution, with all the
demands and possibilities brought to everyday life in rural societies, has
nevertheless created gaps in its culture resulting from the lack of political
investment from local councils and governments and from a serious lack of
dialogue and consultation of the worries of rural communities, which as an
alternative end up by pursuing the more immediate forms of cultural survival. In
this perspective, the European Union should urgently reflect on mechanisms to
compensate for these differences, as a strategy to trigger true development of
all its wealth and diversity. It should integrate the perspective that diversity
is related to both the preservation of the right to development in rural
environments and to the integration of emigrant communities and risk communities
in cities. That is why there is a question of particular interest in the rural
space. Paul Conerton refers to the village as a cultural universe in which
“up to a great extent individuals remember in common”, due to lack of
distance in the physical space or space of activity. From this condition,
villages and some towns become places where the bodily social memory, according
to his concept of communal remembering is deeply preserved in current bodily
performances – the body not only as discourse or manifestation of discourses but
especially as a culturally modulated object in its daily practices and rituals.
This is a field whereby the culture of a community difficult to analyse and to
immediately recognise is manifested. That is why it has been kept within the
field of non-recognition as a potential for study and dialogue with populations,
in terms of the creation of cultural policies. By resorting once again to the
example of Portugal, unlike music (with the research work of Michel Giacometti
and Fernando Lopes Graça’s initiative, still recreated by new creators today)
the work on the body has never been started.
The body includes an underlying force marginal to
our awareness of culture, present in dances and commemorative celebrations, but
not only: there is a whole culture of rhythms, working positions, relationship
with the characteristics of the land, popular beliefs, physiognomies, voice
(which is really the extension of the body in space). These are bodily practices
which because they are identified with rurality, as a socio-cultural bias and
symbol of under-development, they were always sent back behind the mountains,
never being sufficiently identified to raise the hypothesis of their artistic
exploitation by contemporary creators (except by a few creators, such as
Madalena Vitorino or Carlos Afonso Dias, among others).
Do we know how much our ankles or our wrists
placed on our waists weigh? Just like us, does Europe know the culture which
lies beyond urban limits? Will this be the unavoidable path to development or
are we ignoring any intervention in this field as it demands from Europe, in its
ambiguity, diversity and dispersion, new strategies of true decentralisation?
How can one touch on this sub-identity without going back in time, creating
bridges of recognition of our bodies in rural space and between the latter and
urban culture? In triggering this reflection, a question raised by Conerton
should be considered: we have to distinguish social memory of historical
reconstitution and in this assumption to avoid at all cost creating a kind of
“imagined communities” (making use of Mike Featherston’s concept) as a
strategy “to conserve that which they consider to be a local culture (…)
transforming it into a simulation of itself“. The reformulation of a
cultural intervention in Europe which includes the rural environment should not
exist just to create a kind of shop window for tourists to gaze into the past.
Ethnographic museums and handicraft shops are extremely opportune but it is not
this that one is talking about when reconsidering the relationship of rural
communities and their bodily social memory.
We can therefore start with two basic questions:
firstly, how to continue encouraging cultural creation in the rural space,
without forcing people to return to practices which are no longer essential to
them; and on the other hand, how to introduce outside culture in the cultural
life of rural communities?
In the pursuit of answers it is important to bear
in mind that decentralising cultural politics does not mean moving a festival
normally held in the capital to a medium sized town right next to it. Many
solutions can also result from discussions with the artistic community,
challenging it to create, in addition to artistic objects, intervention
solutions in rural communities and integration projects for these in creative
acts of a greater or lesser involvement. Nevertheless, we will only have mobile
artistic communities if the displacement is accompanied by the creation of
professional rights in all Europe on the one hand and a more liberal municipal
management, both in terms of integration of creative strategies, as in investing
in the creation of all basic infrastructures in rural areas, on the other. What
can in fact be concluded is that an in-depth intervention to safeguard culture
in the rural environment has to be integrated into a wide range of meaningful
options. Even though the European Union is not limited to a kind of
supra-national Welfare State type of action, the opportunity it has to intervene
in the disappearance of differences in conditions of access to culture and
cultural creation must be recognised by the multiple societies that make it up.
The acceptance of its profound diversity is the only perspective of common
culture conceivable in a Europe with a sustainable future.
Cultural diversity in Europe results from the
integration of 25 culturally different countries, of the movement of people and
cultural goods, of the possibility of the existence of a cultural goods’ market
based on different conditions under which they are created and disseminated
within each country and here too the relationships each country establishes with
its own culture and the need each society feels to continue to have space for
this relationship. In this way, the cultural politics of Europe should be based
on an increasingly more diversifiedly specific viewpoint by trying to
find specific solutions for each problem, without losing sight of the ripening
of European societies.
Facing the Future
The Technological New Economy and Cultural Business
By Ilídio Nunes, November 2005, Lisbon,
As a young manager of a Portuguese (European)
independent jazz label, each day I face a number of challenges for which I feel
unprepared. I therefore decided to share this experience with you, in this
parliament, by making a small list of topics I believe anyone who intends to
enter the music or movie industry, be it as producer, editor or even as an
artist, should be able to master.
My academic studies on Cultural Management in the
early 90’s did not fully prepare me for the problems I am facing today. We have
talked about the Internet, the digital advent of the new-networked society and
discussed how this new media was going to change our lives. We read Levy,
Negroponte, Baudrillard, Virilio and many others and learned cultural
management, marketing and the basic concepts of economy.
In the meantime, almost ten years have passed by
and I am now challenged with dramatic changes. A new world has emerged and with
it too many equations that need to be solved. Key aspects of the business models
are changing. In the last five years, several new links on the chain of value
are introducing new lexicon – a word list we were used to listen to only when
our computers crashed and we needed to take them to some repair shop. Nowadays
it is odd to witness Apple and Microsoft talking about music and movie industry
and even more surprising is to see them expanding and becoming key players in
It is odd but not necessarily bad. It is really
like growing up and making new friends. It means that those of us who have
already been in this business for some time will have to reshape and readdress
everything. There are lots of new things out there we still need to learn. For
those who are just starting it will be easier if they begin their activity with
a previous understanding of what it may entail.
New Economy; Technology; Software; Copyright.Table of contents
1. New Economy
2. Facing the Future – Prospects and
- Copyright laws
- DRM (Digital Rights Management)
Catalogue and discovery
- CRM (Costumer Relationship Management)
1. New Economy
This is merely a small exercise: I have collected
a number of major principles of New rules for the New Economy(1) and
tried to verify whether or nor they would apply to my label (Clean Feed).
How has a Lisbon based independent jazz label survived during the
last 5 years?
…”Explosive compounded growth.” Technically, n2 growth should
be called polynomial, or even more precisely, a quadratic; a fixed exponent (2
in this case) is applied to a growing number n. True exponential growth in
mathematics entails a fixed number (say 2) that has a growing exponent, n, as in
2n. The curves of some polynomials and exponentials look similar, except the
exponential is even steeper; in common discourse the two is lumped
We understood this concept only after we innocently embraced it in
our own business model. Our first manifesto said:
Clean Feed was founded in 2001. It was born from an urgent
need to change the “grey” Portuguese jazz scene and to release the most creative
international artists. From the first, Clean Feed set out on a mission to record
unsuspected music by recording Portuguese and foreign musicians in separate or
Unaware that joining artistic communities and
exploring mid-size niches in a global environment was a vital thing to do if we
were to play by the rules of the new economy, we released our first record, a
live performance of musicians from two different places (3 from New York + 2
Every one of these musicians had his own local
community, friends, partners, students and fans. What we were in fact doing was
establishing the links between them or, in other words, we were connecting nodes
in a network.
Increasing the network value of the label was
mainly done by inviting as many different musicians as we could. At present, we
have 148 artists in our rooster.
N= musicians N*N=musicians network value
What does this mean? It means that Clean Feed’s network has more
or less 21.000 persons; this is among musicians established links alone.
This strategy not only allowed us to make some
money out of being an independent jazz label, but it dramatically increased our
artistic and creative network as well, forcing us to refuse projects that we
once dreamed of recording. Metcalfe’s theory about increasing returns was
beginning to work for Clean Feed.
We never expected to have one of our CDs reviewed
in the New York Times, nor did we anticipate to frequently read reviews of our
work in the trade magazines, or to receive dozens of projects from all over the
world to release. Having customers from Tokyo, L.A. and Sydney visiting our
website store or having 40.000 hits per month in our website was indeed beyond
our expectations. As it is, increasing sales per project was inevitable.
Only recently we realized that as physical
proximity (place) is replaced by multiple interactions with anything, anytime,
anywhere (space), the opportunities for intermediaries, middlemen, and mid-size
niches greatly expand.(4)
Reading Kevin Kelly’s Ten Radical Strategies
for a Connected World or the Long Tail concept by Chris Anderson was
something that we only did after we had already started to become overwhelmed
with our own success.
We do not know if Clean Feed strategy was an
intuitive perception of the rules of new economy or if we were just moving
across the late 90s euphoria. I am personally convinced that all of us who are
connected to the artistic and cultural background perfectly understand some of
the basic rising concepts. As far as we are concerned the new rules of the new
economy are just common rules.2. Facing the Future – Prospects and obstacles
How do we face the future? Excited. There is a
brave new world coming our way. The software industries do not cease to surprise
us with their new developments. The gadget industry is trying to keep up the
pace and communication technologies are more important and stronger than ever as
they work on making these innovations ubiquitous.
There will be obstacles to overcome specially
those generated by the gap between the adjustment rhythms of some key players
and their old business models.
Copyright Laws – If there is one problem that
worries me the most is how long it will take politics and major copyright owning
companies’ cartels to understand that the existing copyright law does not fit
new business models. The one thing accomplished by these laws is to keep other
players at a safe distance from participating in a chain of value. Granting
monopoly status for such long periods does not increase creativity nor does it
protect artists. Therefore, these laws are far from their primary objectives,
i.e., to defend author’s rights and to promote creation. These days, they are
just means for giant corporations to defend their profits and candy land for
CRM (Costumer Relationship Management) – As
the soft trumps the hard, the most powerful technologies are those that enhance,
amplify, extend, augment, distil, recall, expand, and develop soft relationships
of all types. If there is something else that we, in the cultural business,
do understand is the importance of a long and stable relationship with our
costumers. Proximity with the nodes in your network is fundamental. Business is
moving up from selling goods to strangers to providing services to members.
Catalogue and Discovery – Google changed the way
we relate to the Internet. The new generation browser will do it even more by
narrowing our search results with a filter that learns from the user’s
navigation experience. Intelligent logarithms will rank pages based on
client-side compiled metadata digitally stored in our PCs. This will allow us to
save time while searching for the contents we really want. At present you just
have to add collaborative filters and you will have small on-line communities
thousand miles apart sharing common interests.
Question: If you narrow the search results to a personal or even
collective experience (witch is an amazing instrument to browse catalogue) will
there be room for “discovery”?
DRM (Digital Rights Management) – The process
of standardization is always a political struggle, with winners and
losers(6). From railroads to screws, from UNIX to DRM these are
few examples of fights to establish a standard. It is crucial for us to see the
end of a war between software companies that intend to become the holders of the
DRM standard. We refuse to be a part of this war but our business models depend
on it. If no standard is achieved the lesser the attention from mobile phone
companies, ISP and digital content providers will be. They are, at this point in
time, the ones who are going to connect us to the world.
Broadband – There is not much to say on this
subject as I think it is quite evident. If you intend to set up your business
plan and follow the rules of the new economy you will need broadband. We have
been talking about networks, CRM, download, upload, streaming and other
technologies commonly known as the ‘net’ or the ‘web’, so we really need to be
connected. It is vital for Europe’s cultural roadmap that it should be
considered a top priority for all.
1. Kelly, Kevin; New rules for the New Economy; Penguin
Books, New York (October, 1999).
2. Kelly, Kevin; New rules for the New
Economy; Penguin Books, New York (October, 1999).
3. Cleen Feed’s first
4. Kelly, Kevin; New rules for the New Economy;
Penguin Books, New York (October, 1999).
5. Lawrence Lessig comments about
MGM vs. Grokster, during his presentation Clearing the Air About Open
Source on the Open source business conference 2005.
James; Turn of the Century; Wired Magazine, issue 10.01; Jan 2002.
By Pierre Guillet de Monthoux, Geneva,
This proposal describes the rationale for
organizing an European Cultural Parliament (ECP) Schwungseminar as a NOMADIC
UNIVERSITY (NU). The seminar would yoke students and industrial partners in
creative cultural projects in European cultural institutions. ECP Schwungseminar
at NU would provide future business leaders the opportunity to participate in a
living learning laboratories connecting campus and community, an offering unique
yet pivotal to true European management education for the new creative class.
Why Nomadic University Schwungseminar?
Current management research reveals that economic
success depends on an organization’s sensitivity to the cultural pulse of its
environment. Therefore, developing a sustainable connection between European
management and European culture would improve economic growth while providing a
fresh outlook on human resources and technologies. In The new spirit of
capitalism (2005), Boltanski & Chiapello echo three of the most famous
prophecies of the German artist and professor of sculpture Joseph Beuys. The
prophecies reveal how Beuys wants us to rethink economy on the basis of an
enlarged concept of art.
Through its emphasis on Schwung, the proposed
Nomadic University Schwungseminar would update Beuys. Schwung is a term from the
German aesthetic philosophy of Schiller. It describes a managerial playful
performance of virtuosity as a joyful pendulum movement between forms of thought
and matters of experience. The Schwungseminar, meeting for five intensive day
blocks on at least four different locations of the Nomadic University , would
follow a triadic Beuysian design for exploration, reflection and experimentation
Exploration of Social Sculpture in Art and
Beuys, a trained sculptor, defined leadership as
Soziale Skulptur, and this why Nomadic University students would explore living
cases in European cultural projects and institutions–as social sculpture.
Replacing obsolete industrial templates of management and efficiency with cases
from culture and art affords an innovative and practical opportunity for a truly
European management education. Art at work gives rise to a social process where
people communicate, exchange, and connect the new ways much in demand in future
The time to rethink business efficiency along
this European model of social sculpture is now. Social sculpture evolves out of
traditions and revitalizes communities into making playful jumps coached by the
kind of aesthetic leadership that today is in demand far beyond the borders of
the fine arts (Guillet de Monthoux et. al). NU- students should explore culture
not as consumers of entertainment but as investigators of backstage-insights
into how art works and develops as the serious play ( Jacobs & Statler,
Letiche & Statler ) of social sculpting.
Reflections on Artistry and Management
Beuys’ slogan for a democratic capitalism, Jeder
ist ein Künstler, aimed at rediscovering the creative potential in humans. He
never meant that we are potential Einsteins or Picassos; they were geniuses of
the past. Contemporary creativity – the kind increasingly appreciated in
business and industry, is not a matter of individual geniality but is connected
to collaborative virtuosity.
A virtuoso knows how to reshape a familiar
existing theme into a fresh and surprising idea. The virtuosity within our grasp
is not about creating something absolutely new; it is rather about creating
interesting interpretations. Instead of looking at innovation from a
“newness”-perspective, we focus on how the shaping of new values rests upon
interpretation and repositioning of old traditions, processes which are ever
present in European cultural landscapes. After exploring living cases,
participants and guests of the Schwungseminar would reflect on their
observations and develop their interpretations of what such artistry means for
human resource management. The faculty of the NU, constituted of members of the
European Cultural Parliament, abounds of competence in such practical
Experiments in art=”Capital”
Long regarded as a mere provocation, Beuys´ third
prophecy has slowly but surely gained respectability as a statement of fact. His
famous equation kunst=”Kapital” certainly does not mean that a Chagall or a
Christo is a secure investment. The point is that art–when discovered and
interpreted by the public as a societal resource- becomes a dynamic factor in
economic value-making. The managerial lesson is that value-production, which
once focused on products and processes, is increasingly about performance. When
spectators and onlookers play the central part, goods and services become
secondary bonuses or sideshows. Economists used to discarding art and culture as
“unproductive” labor need to conceive of management as valuing performance as
central to business as it has always been to cultural production. The final
mission of the NO Schwungseminar is to become an experimental lab for new
value-making,, using the kunst=”Kapital” principle to design concrete
art-business projects fueld by rich European culture .
Nomadic University; Euro-City-Scape learning
The Schwungseminar of NU the first management
school to strategically integrate new cultural thinking in its curriculum and at
the same time link its students to concrete urban cultural entrepreneurship.
There is amongst managers and increasing awareness of the importance of the city
and its art and culture to economic creativity (Florida 2002, 2004). The seminar
enables future European managers to connect to aesthetic wealth of the European
cultural city-scapes that reap values far beyond those traditionally associated
with tourist attractions, status symbols, and relaxing entertainment. Through
the NU and its Schwungseminar the ECP gains a twofold benefit: it not only
shapes a place for new student learning; it can also enhance its position in
Europe’s managerial and economic development.
Memebers of ECP are active in most of Europe’s
dynamic cultural city-scapes, that would be ideal for the travelling NO
Schwungseminar. By going to eg Copenhagen, Åbo, Lissabon, Berlin, Graz or Biella
students will experience dense milieus with operas, theatres, concert halls,
museums, and art spaces, all within walking distance. They will profit of a
European faculty from university centers that were part of the cradle of
aesthetic philosophy. Most European centres connected to the NU Schwungseminar
have rich historical traditions of fruitful partnerships between art, science,
and economy. The NU Schwungseminar will forge an ECP link to European assets
impossible to experience in campus environments modelled after the US
Europe is made up of hot spots for new
avant-garde cultural action. The European city is known globally as an exciting
melting pot for cultural projects and institutions. Mediated by the
Schwungseminar, NU offers ECP a living laboratory to rethink management
education and company creative practice. The Schwungseminar at NU would help ECP
to follow the advice of many serious scholars (Czarniawska, Steyaert, Florida)
who strongly believe European metropolitan areas are the powerhouses of creative
energies for future economic development.
The Nuts and Bolts of the Nomadic University
The NU Schwungseminar can only work as a
long-term commitment. Its positive effects on ECP and its beneficial
implications for European cultural capitals must be insured by a strong
structure made up of research and formally supported by local and international
personalities. The NU should work as network of hot spots monitored and
discovered by the ECP. The ECP annual assembly has organically developed into a
showcase for good art and cultural practices amongst which NU can single out the
stops for next years travelling Schwungseminar. The ECP annual meeting is also
an ideal place for holding annual faculty meetings to monitor the NU
Schwungseminar and its possible future stops.
The NU should ideally be managed by an educational
- for housing the NU secretariat responsible for budgeting the
fundraising for the Schwungseminar. NU should ideally cover local cost for
running a five-day seminar expected to 6000 Euros per Schwungseminar-stop. Costs
for travelling and lodging should ideally be covered by the participants
- for advertising and recruiting candidates for the NU
Schwungseminar using ECP members for the diffusion of information
- for selecting students for each Schwungseminar round, a ideal
group for such a Schwungseminar is around 20 students
- for selecting the stops for NU Schwungseminars
- for coordinating the travelling between the stops of the NU
Each stop is responsible for scheduling and
carrying out a one week program showing living cases of art and cultural
management typical for the location. For instance Michelangelo Pistoletto has
suugested to offer Cittadellarte in Biella as a stop for the NU Schwungseminar,
Peter Hanke has suugested the Centre for Art and Leadership at Copenahgen
Business School and Pierre Guillet de Monthoux is prepared to host a stop at the
Eureopean Centre for Art and Management in Stockholm.
Connecting European Cultures for tomorrows European
Creative management today is more often referred
to in terms of design rather than engineering (Boland) and as curating (
Lindqvist ) for artful making rather than executing and controlling operations
(Austin & Devin). When industry and trade become art-based, creative
business needs to understand the aesthetic leadership ( Guillet de Monthoux et.
al. ) that artists use to run their successful art firms (Guillet de Monthoux).
These research-documented trends reveal the consequences of changing industrial
structures, of slimming corporations to a few full time people able to safeguard
business culture. Clear-cut inside-outside boundaries of firms and environments
dissolve when business shifts from institutions to temporal projects. Firms
exist as brands and signatures on imaginary plateaus ( Deleuze & Guattari)
in network societies ( Castels) where potential economic resources lie scattered
over vast cultural landscapes. Social competences requisite to successful
management careers develop not on the job, but in multitudes (Virno) of cultural
experiences. The experience economies (Pine & Gilmore) we live in no longer
depend on metal-bending but rather on mental-bending to accommodate ideas like
the fact that architectural atmospheres (Böhme) and elaborate styles (Postrel)
do add value.
Competitive quality for future Euro-firms hinges
then on elusive and volatile subjects that have not been formerly treated
explicitly in any management education. Still we know that Europe has a lot of
artists with unique competences in organizational learning and business
development far beyond the traditional image of the “commercial artist”
(Brellochs & Schrat). If given a forum like the ECP NU Schwungseminar they
are prepared to connect to business and value-making in ways profitable to both
European commerce and culture. In this situation ECP and the NU Schwungseminar
offers a unique opportunity to prepare contemporary managers to be in tune with
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Boland, Richard, Fred Collopy edts. 2004 Management as Design.
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Boltanski Luc, Eve Chiapello. 2005. The new spirit of capitalism.
Brellochs, Mari, Henrik Schrat. 2005 Produkt/Vision, Reader
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Böhme, Gernot. 1995 Athmosphäre. Franfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
Castels Manuel. 1995 The Rise of the network society. Oxford:
Czarnaiwska, Barbara. 2002. A Tale of Three Cities. Oxford: Oxford
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Florida, Richard. 2004. Cities and the creative class. London:
Guillet de Monthoux, Pierre. 2004. The Art Firm. Palo Alto:
Stanford University Press.
Guillet de Monthoux, Pierre et. Al. edts (forthcoming) Aesthetic
Leadership in art and business.
Jacobs, Claus, Matt Statler Strategy creation as serious play.
Chapter in Floyd et al.. 2005.
Innovating strategy process. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lindqvist, Katja. 2002. Exhibition Enterprising. Doct dissertation
Letiche, Hugo, Matt Statler. Evoking Metis article in Culture and
Organizations vol 11. issue 1. March 2005.
Pine, B. Joseph II, James H. Gilmore. The Experience Economy.
Postrel, Virginia. 2003. The Substance of Style. New York: Harper
Collins Business School Press, 1999.
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New Agora – Quest for New Ideas and New Intercultural
A Proposal by the Borderland Foundation for the European
By Krzysztof Czyzewski, Sejny, Poland.
NEW AGORA is a response to the challenge of
today’s Europe facing complex problems with multicultural society, integration
and identity. The program is based on two different spheres of activity:
reflective – the Mobile Academy, and practical – the Inter-Cultural Workshop.
Clearly visible to the naked eye, there is an
ongoing social crisis of the European multicultural society. It turns out that a
dose of tolerance, which a decade earlier sufficed the peoples of various
nationalities, cultures and denominations to co-exist in one body of society,
today is no longer satisfactory. Moreover, it appears that European openness
towards the otherness has been built, in many cases, on a concept of political
correctness understood superficially and absolving the citizens from any attempt
at a deeper understanding and closeness to the Other.
The process of integration and opening of borders
needs to be accompanied by growing tolerance, especially if no work on
transformation has been carried out in the sphere of culture and mentality.
Europeans have too long lived in closed national states, too many of them
experienced religious conflicts, too many are entrenched in their own separate
cultural identities (which are defended in the name of cultural variety)
therefore the opening, experienced by them through European integration,
globalization and migration, evokes in them frustration and attitudes radically
averse to the Other.
The title of the program “New Agora” refers to
the community space which is not just a sum of separate features, but grows out
from the wealth of separateness understood as unique quality. It determines for
the cultures their point of juncture, the central place, the place of meetings,
common work and dialogue. The borderlands are like the land crossed with the
waters of rivers, whose inhabitants must unceasingly build bridges and seek
alternative ways of forcing their way from one bank onto the other to be able to
live and develop. Today, it is necessary to rephrase the question about the
rules and values which should organize life in such communities and about the
knowledge and methods of building bridges, i.e. the relations with the
The “New Agora” program proposes a long-term
cycle of activities concentrated on seeking new ideas and on working out of new
inter-cultural practices. It will be realized in different places in Europe in
the form of a Mobile Academy, engaging outstanding representatives of
humanistic thought, and Inter-Cultural Workshops, engaging the young,
educators, social activists and artists. Special stress will be laid on the
forms of dissemination of the results of the meetings and workshops as well as
their continuation in local communities.
The Borderland Foundation is inviting the European Culture
Parliament members to discuss the proposal and to consider a partnership in the
realization of the program.